April 6, 2018
Observing the changing Anthropocene from space and from aircraft: GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME2, Sentinel 5-P, and the EMeRGe campaign
Prof. John Burrows (University of Bremen)
2018년 4월 10일 (화) 16:00
Prior to the Neolithic Revolution around 12 000 Yr BP, the Earth’s population was around 4 million hunter gatherers. Population grew to around 1 Billion at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the UK (1750-1800). Thereafter, its growth began to accelerate and population is now over 7.6 Billion with more than 50% living in megacities or urban agglomerations, known as Major Population Centres. The energy to fuel this growth has been in large produced from fossil fuel combustion. It has resulted in improved longevity, a rapidly increasing standard of living, supplied by an evolving industrial sectors. However, this has resulted in ever increasing and evolving emissions of pollutants (both short lived climate pollutants and long lived greenhouse gases) and global land use change This is impacting on air and water quality, human health, ecosystem services and climate change. Pollution extends form the local to global scale. The world has now entered a new geological epoch the Anthropocene. To assess accurately the impact of man in the evolving Anthropocene both space based an airborne measurement of atmospheric composition are a pre requisite. The SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) project was proposed in 1988 to meet this need. SCIAMACHY flew on the ESA Envisat (2002 to 2012), which flew in a sun synchronous polar orbit in descending node, having an equator crossing time of 10:00 am local time. SCIAMACHY, a passive remote sensing double monochrometer, measured the up-welling radiation from the top of the atmosphere. The GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) was a smaller version of SCIAMACHY, on ESA ERS-2 (1995 to 2011) viewing only in nadir. GOME-2 is a somewhat improved version of GOME, aboard the ESA/EUMESAT. SCIAMACHY, GOME, and GOME-2 are best known for the retrievals of trace gases in the troposphere and the stratosphere, where measurements of the total and tropospheric columns of the trace gases O3, NO2, HCHO, CHO.CHO, BrO, IO, H2O, CO as well ocean colour, cloud and aerosol optical properties. In addition, SCIAMACHY observations made the first dry column mixing ratios of CO, CH4 and CO2. In addition to space measurements, aircraft are needed to provide high spatial resolution measurements of trace atmospheric constituents to test our understanding of the transport and transformation of atmospheric emissions. EMeRGe (Effect of MEgacities on the Transport and Transformation of Pollutants on the Regional to Global Scales) was proposed to exploit the capabilities of the German HALO research aircraft to study the outflow from MPC. This presentation will provide highlights from both spaced based remote sensing and provisional observations from EMeRGe, which is currently ongoing.